The balance sheet serves as the foundation for calculating investor rates of return and assessing a company’s capital structure.
Precisely, a balance sheet is a financial statement that indicates what a firm owns and owes and where the business stands.
Balance sheets can be used in conjunction with other essential financial accounts to perform a basic analysis of the financial position and study financial ratios.
The balance sheet equation is similar to the accounting equation in that assets are on one side, liabilities and shareholder equity are on the other, and both sides balance.
Assets = Liabilities + Shareholder’s Equity
The equation states that a company pays for what it possesses (assets) by borrowing money (liabilities) or taking it from shareholders or investors (equity).
Current assets and liabilities must be recorded separately under Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP). Similarly, current Liabilities must be distinguished from long-term liabilities.
Cash, accounts receivable, inventory, and prepaid expenditure is examples of current asset accounts, whereas long-term asset accounts include long-term investments, fixed assets, and intangible assets.
Long-term debt, interest payable, wages, and pending suppliers’ payments are examples of current liability accounts, whereas long-term liabilities include long-term loans, pension fund obligations, and bonds payable.
Accounts for assets will be organized in descending order of maturity, while liabilities will be organized in ascending order. Accounts are classified in decreasing order of priority under shareholder’s equity.
Small business owners may not believe they require balance sheets, yet these financial documents are critical for various reasons.
For a common man, balance sheets may show you what your account receivables are if you provide a service or goods on credit, as well as all of your obligations, giving you a glimpse of how your enterprise is performing.
A balance sheet also provides you with the data you need to compare your company’s 7Key performance indicators to those of similar businesses.
Balance sheets are also useful in deciding if you need to take on more debt to expand operations or lower the interest rate on your present debt.
This statement is an excellent tool to assess a company’s financial situation. A balance sheet may be used by an analyst to construct a variety of financial ratios that assist in establishing how well a firm is functioning, how liquid or solvent it is, and how efficient it is.
Changes in balance sheet accounts are also utilized in the cash flow statement to compute net cash flow.
A positive change in plant, property, and equipment, for example, is equal to capital expenditure less depreciation expense.
The balance sheet may be seen separately or in conjunction with other statements such as the income statement and cash flow statement to provide a complete picture of a company’s position.
The following are four critical financial success metrics: